During the last glacial period, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Neanderthals; the most famous Neanderthal archaeological site in Slovenia is a cave close to the village of Šebrelje near Cerkno, where the Divje Babe flute, the oldest known musical instrument in the world was found in 1995.
In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished.
Numerous archeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in Slovenia, with important settlements in Most na Soči, Vače, and Šentvid pri Stični.
In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC, when the Romans conquered the region establishing the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum.
What is now western Slovenia was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria.
Important Roman towns located in present-day Slovenia included Emona, Celeia and Poetovio.
Other important settlements were Nauportus, Neviodunum, Haliaetum, Atrans, and Stridon.
The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present.