Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago.
The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.
Development has destroyed much of the city's history including that of the first inhabitants.
There continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park.
Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.
He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.